The Planets

Nine main planets are employed in Vedic Astrology. Their English equivalents and symbols are given below:
Vedic Name
English Equivelant
Ravi (Surya)
Guru (Brihaspati)
Rahu (Dragon's head)
Ketu (Dragon's head)
(1) Physical Attributes :
            The Sun has a square build,scanty but curly hair, lovely appearance, good intelligence, impressive voice, medium stature, red eyes, dark red complexion, strong bones, bilious nature, firm temperment and saffron robes.
The Moon has a slim but roundish body, beautiful appearance, lovely eyes, sweet tongue, phlegm and wind in his composition, white complexion, short curly hair, amiable nature, Sattvika inclination, discriminating wisdom, restless nature, excessive sexual urge, white robes.
Mars is characterised by fierce red eyes, short stature, tough and youthful body, fickle but generous disposition, short but shining and curly hair, valorous nature, Tamasika inclination, eagerness to hurt, easy excitability, bilious disposition and fair complexion.
Mercury has a slim and beautiful body, large reddish eyes, dark green complexion, healthy skin, medium height, clear and witty speech, expression with multiple meanings, Rajasika inclination, plenty of energy, bile, wind and phlegm in his composition, and green robes.
Jupiter has a big belly and a fat body,pale eyes, virtuous disposition, phlegmatic temperament, knowledge of scriptures and sciences, bright yellow complexion, Sattvika inclination, sharp intelligence, keenness in religious pursuits, forgiving nature and yellow-coloured dress.
Venus is dark brown and handsome, of symmetrical limbs and dark curly hair, writer of poetry, and has an amorous disposition. He has long arms, broad chest, excessive seminal fluid, windy and phlegmatic temperament, Rajasika inclination, grace, vigour, wisdom and intelligence, and multi-coloured robes.
Saturn has a tall, lean and weak body, dark complexion, stiff hair and limbs, large teeth, lazy disposition, windy temperament, cruel nature, Tamasika inclination, lame, dark and shabby robes.

          Rahu and Ketu have a bluish complexion resembling smoke, wild in bearing, intelligent, and of windy disposition.

(2) Planetary Lordship :
The Sun owns Simha    
The Moon owns Karka    
Mars owns     Mesha and Vrischika          
Mercury owns Mithuna and Kanya
Jupiter owns Dhanu and Meena   
Venus owns     Vrisha and Tula        
Saturn owns         Makara and Kumbha
(3) Castes :
Brahmins     Jupiter, Venus         
Kshatriyas    Sun, Mars        
Vaishyas Moon, Mercury          
Shudra        Saturn        

(4) Essential nature :

Sattvika (good and noble)      Sun, Moon, Jupiter           
Rajasika (active and just)  Mercury, Venus         
Tamasika (dark and base) Mars, Saturn

(5) Rulership in respect of the Kaala-Purusha :

Sun    Soul   
Moon    Mind       
Mars Essence          
Mercury       Speech           
Jupiter       Wisdom and comforts          
Venus    Seminal fluid          
Saturn        Miseries
( 6) Social status :

King      Sun, Moon        
Commander-in-chief Mars   
Heir-apparent             Mercury   
Ministers Jupiter, Venus         
Servant     Saturn           
Army                      Rahu and Ketu
(7) Gender :

Masculine Sun, Mars, Jupiter           
Feminine      Moon, Venus    
Eunuchs       Mercury, Saturn
(8) Rulership over body constituents :

Sun    Bones
Moon    Blood   
Mars Marrow
Mercury Skin
Jupiter Fat
Venus    Seminal fluid          
Saturn        Nerves
(9) Places represented :

Sun Temple
Moon Watery place
Mars Place of fire     
Mercury    Playground
Jupiter Treasure house
Venus Bedroom      
Saturn Dirty places, sites of refuse dispose
(10) Directions :

Sun  East       
Moon North West       
Mars South
Mercury    North
Jupiter North East
Venus    South East
Saturn West
Rahu South West
(11) Directional strength :

Mercury, Jupiter East (Lagna or the 1st house)    
Sun, Mars                 South (10th house)   
Moon, Venus              

North (4th house)   

Saturn West (7th house)   
(12) Benefics and Malefics :

Natural benefics   

Moon, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus    

Natural malefics Sun, Mars, Saturn, Rahu, Ketu  
The waning Moon and afflicted Mercury too behave as malefics.        

(13) Exaltation, Debilitation and Moola Trikona :

Planets are strong and favourable when placed in their exaltation signs or in Moola Trikona signs.

Planet Exaltation    Debilitation Mooltrikona    
The Sun    Aries 10 Libra 10 Leo 0-20
The Moon     Taurus 3    Scorpio 3 Taurus 4-20   
Mars Capricorn 28 Cancer 28    Aries 0-12   
Mercury    Virgo 15    Pisces 15 Virgo 16-20
Jupiter Cancer 5 Capricorn 5  Sagittarius 0-10
Venus Pisces 27 Virgo 27 Libra 0-15   
Saturn Libra 20    Aries 20    Aquarius 0-20
(14) Natural Mutual Relationship of Planets :

Planets according to their nature, are disposed as friends or enemies or neutrals towards other planets. A planet's friends are the lord of its exaltation sign as also the planets owning houses 2, 12, 5, 9, 4 and 8 from its Moola Trikona sign.

Planet Friends Enemies    Neutrals
The Sun Mon, Mar, Jup Ven, Sat Mer
The Moon Sun, Mer  --                  Mars, Jup, Ven, Sat
Mars Sun, Mon, Jup Mer Ven, Sat   
Mercury Sun, Ven Mon Mars, Jup, Sat
Jupiter    Sun, Mon, Mar       Mer, Ven    Sat
Venus Mer, Sat Sun, Mon Mars, Jup    
Saturn    Mer, Ven    Sun, Mon, Mar       Jup   
15) Temporal relationship :

Besides their natural disposition as friends, enemies or equals(neutrals) towards each other, planets become friends or enemies of each other depending upon their location in a horoscopic chart.

Temporal friends : Planets located in houses 2, 12, 3, 11, 4 and 10 from any planet become its temporal friends. Temporal enemies : Planets located in houses 1 (i.e., conjunction), 7 (opposition), 5, 9, 6 and 8 from any planet become its temporal enemies.         
  (16) Five grades of relationship :

On the basis of their natural and temporal disposition towards each other, planets may have any of the five grades of relationships given below:

Natural    Temporal  Resultant relationship       
1. Friend     Friend        Bosom friend           
2. Friend     Enemy         Neutral      
3. Neutral    Friend Friend           
4. Neutral    Enemy       Enemy    
5. Enemy      Friend Neutral          
6. Enemy Enemy      Bitter enemy
(17) Aspects, Combustion and Retrogression :

       Planets exert their influence on the houses and planets that they aspect. All planets fully aspect the seventh house, or planets located therein, from their own position. in addition, the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) have been granted special aspects.Thus Mars also fully aspects houses 4 and 8, Jupiter houses 5 and 9, and Saturn houses 3 and 10. The remaining planets cast a quarter glance on houses 3 and 10, Half an aspect on houses 5 and 9, and three-quarter aspect on houses 4 and 8.

        Planets when close to the Sun tend to lose their strength and vitality, and are considered to be combust. A combust planet loses its capacity to do good and produces adverse results. Planets also become retrograde when, during their motion, they appear to be moving in a reverse direction. The Sun and the Moon do not become retrograde while Rahu and Ketu (almost) always move in a retrograde direction. A retrograde planet produces unexpected results and is generally adverse for health. A retrograde planet also exerts influence from its preceding house.

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